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IATA危险品规章 Dangerous Goods Regulations 2(31)

时间:2014-11-10 01:35来源:IATA 作者:航空 点击:
  
5.0.2.6.2 Materials of Construction
Materials, such as some plastics, which can be signifi-cantly softened or rendered brittle or permeable by the temperatures likely to be experienced during transport (see 5.0.4.1) or because of the chemical action of the contents or the use of a refrigerant, must not be used. Even though certain packagings are specified in individual packing instructions it is, nevertheless, the responsibility of the shipper to ensure that such packagings are, in every way, compatible with the articles or substances to be contained within such packagings. This particularly applies to corrosivity, permeability, softening, premature ageing and embrittlement.
Particular attention should be paid to the following:
(a)the effect of fluorine on glass;
(b)the effects of corrosion on metals such as steel and aluminium;
(c)  consideration of the interaction (such as swelling, permeation, chemical degradation and environmental stress cracking) of substances with polymer materials such as polyethylene and polypropylene.
5.0.2.6.3 Evidence of Compatibility
Shippers must ensure that all appropriate measures have been taken to ensure that the packagings used are compatible with the dangerous goods to be transported. Evidence of such measures or assessments must be made available to the competent authority upon request.
5.0.2.7 Temperature and Vibration Resistance
5.0.2.7.1 The body and the closure of any packaging must be so constructed as to be able to adequately resist the effects of temperature and vibration occurring in normal conditions of transport. The closure device must
be so designed that it
(a)is unlikely that it can be incorrectly or incompletely closed, and must be such that it may be checked easily to determine that it is completely closed;
(b)
remains closed during transport.
5.0.2.7.2 In addition, for inner packagings containing liquids, closures must be held securely, tightly and effectively in place by secondary means. Examples of such methods include: adhesive tape, friction sleeves, welding or soldering, positive locking wires, locking rings, induction heat seals and child-resistant closures. The closure device must be so designed that it is unlikely that it can be incorrectly or incompletely closed. When sec-ondary means of closure cannot be applied, the inner packaging must be securely closed and placed in a leakproof liner and then placed in an outer packaging.
5.0.2.8 Ullage
OPERATOR VARIATION: KZ03
When filling packagings for liquids, sufficient ullage (outage) must be left to ensure that neither leakage nor permanent distortion of the packaging will occur as a result of an expansion of the liquid caused by tempera-tures likely to prevail during transport. Liquids must not completely fill a packaging at a temperature of 55°C.
5.0.2.9 Internal Pressure Standards
Packagings, for which retention of liquid is a basic function, must be capable of withstanding, without leak-age, an internal pressure which produces a pressure differential of not less than 95 kPa (0.95 bar), not less than 75 kPa (0.75 bar) for liquids in Packing Group III of Class 3 or Division 6.1, or a pressure related to the vapour pressure of the liquid to be conveyed, whichever is the greater. The pressure related to the vapour pressure must be determined by one of the methods described in 5.0.2.9.1 to 5.0.2.9.3.
5.0.2.9.1 Method A—the total gauge pressure mea sured in the packaging (i.e. the vapour pressure of the filling substance and the partial pressure of the air or other inert gases, less 100 kPa) at 55°C (1 bar), multiplied by a safety factor of 1.5; this total gauge pressure should be determined on the basis of a degree of filling in accordance with 5.0.2.8 and a filling tempera-ture of 15°C; or
5.0.2.9.2 Method B—1.75 times the vapour pressure at 50°C less 100 kPa (1 bar) but with a minimum of 95 kPa
(0.95 bar).
This is expressed as:
P = (Vp50 × 1.75) -100 kPa, with a minimum of 95 kPa
where:
P = Pressure requirement in kPa (gauge)
Vp50 = Vapour pressure at 50°C; or
5.0.2.9.3 Method C—1.5 times the vapour pressure at 55°C less 100 kPa but with a minimum of 95 kPa.
This is expressed as:
P = (Vp55 × 1.5) -100 kPa, with a minimum of 95 kPa
where:
P = Pressure requirement in kPa (gauge)
Vp55 = Vapour pressure at 55°C.
Note:
The capability of a packaging to withstand an internal pressure without leakage that produces the specified pressure differential should be determined by testing samples of inner packagings of combination packagings and single packagings. Pressure differential is the differ-ence between the pressure exerted on the inside of the packaging and the pressure on the outside. The appropri-ate test method should be selected based on packaging type. Acceptable test methods include any method that produces the required pressure differential between the inside and outside of a single packaging or an inner packaging of a combination packaging. The test may be conducted using internal hydraulic or pneumatic pressure (gauge) or external vacuum test methods. Internal hydraulic or pneumatic pressure can be applied in most cases as the required pressure differential can be achieved under most circumstances. An external vacuum test is not acceptable if the specified pressure differential is not achieved and maintained. The external vacuum test is a generally acceptable method for rigid packagings but is not normally acceptable for:
●flexible packagings;
●packagings filled and closed under an absolute atmospheric pressure lower than 95 kPa or for liquids in Packing III of Class 3 or Division 6.1 with an absolute pressure of 75 kPa;
●packagings intended for the transport of high vapour pressure liquids (i.e. vapour pressure greater than 111 kPa at 50°C or 130 kPa at 55°C and accordingly greater than 100 kPa at 50°C or 117 kPa at 55°C for liquids in Packing III of Class 3 or Division 6.1.
 
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