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连续下降最终进近 Continuous Descent Final Approach (CDFA)

时间:2011-11-26 17:48来源:蓝天飞行翻译 作者:航空 点击:

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Continuous Descent Final Approach (CDFA)
Captain Greg Botch
777 Chief Pilot – Technical
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Agenda
● The Past
● The Present
● The Future
● Questions and Answers
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company.
Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. CDFA.2
Continuous Descent Final Approach
The Past
● Dive and drive approaches
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company.
Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. CDFA.3
Continuous Descent Final Approach
The Present
● V/S (constant angle)
● VNAV
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company.
Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. CDFA.4
Continuous Descent Final Approach
The - Improvements
Future Technology ● RNAV - Concept
● RNAV (GPS)
● RNAV (RNP)
● IAN
● GLS
● SAAAR / AR
Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. CDFA.5
The Past - Dive and Drive Approaches
● Normally a 1000 fpm or more rate of descent is established

The Past - Dive and Drive Approaches
Disadvantages
● Pilots have to calculate the VDP (Visual Descent Point) by
determining the height above the airport (HAA) of the MDA(H)
d 300 di t t th
and use ft per NM distance to the runway

The Past - Dive and Drive Approaches
Disadvantages (continued)
● Unstable final approach
● Terrain closure rate
R li t
● Runway alignment
● Aircraft configuration changes

CFIT & Dive and Drive Approaches
● Flight Safety Foundation

Study of Fatal Approach-and-Landing
AccidentsWorldwide
● 287 fatal accidents (1980-1996)
● 60 % of the accidents occurred during non-ILS approaches
● 47% step-non-occurred during down ILS approaches
● 48% in mostly flat terrain
step non ● Large number of approaches occurred at night or IMC

CDFA Page 10
(CFIT) Controlled Flight Into Terrain
Approach Accidents
Most common causes:
• Un-stabilized approaches
• Descent below MDA

Commonality Among the Approaches
Dive and Drive (continued)

Flight Safety Foundation Recommendations
● Establishing and adhering to SOPs
● Operators should define parameters for a stabilized approach
● Implement Constant-Angle and Rate-of-Descent procedures
● Train flight crews in proper use of Constant-Angle procedures
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company.
Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. CDFA.13
Continuous Descent Final Approach
The Present
● V/S (constant angle)
● VNAV
BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company.
Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. CDFA.14
 
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