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Glider Flying Handbook(11)

时间:2010-05-10 17:47来源:蓝天飞行翻译 作者:admin 点击:
  
Studies have identified five hazardous attitudes
that can interfere with your ability to make sound
decisions and exercise authority properly. [Figure 1-
7]
Hazardous attitudes can lead to poor decision
making and actions that involve unnecessary risk.
You must examine your decisions carefully to
ensure your choices have not been influenced by
h a z a r d o u s
attitudes, and you must be familiar with positive
alternatives to counteract the hazardous attitudes.
These substitute attitudes are referred to as antidotes.
During a flight operation, it is important to
be able to recognize a hazardous attitude, correctly
label the thought, and then recall its antidote.
[Figure 1-8]
STRESS MANAGEMENT
Everyone is stressed to some degree all the time.
A certain amount of stress is good since it keeps a
person alert and prevents complacency.
However, effects of stress are cumulative and, if
not coped with adequately, eventually add up to
an intolerable burden. Performance generally
increases with the onset of stress, peaks, and
then begins to fall off rapidly as stress levels
exceed a person’s ability to cope. The ability to
make effective decisions during flight can be
impaired by stress. Factors, referred to as stressors,
can increase a pilot’s risk of error in the cockpit.
[Figure 1-9]
There are several techniques to help manage the
accumulation of life stresses and prevent stress
overload. For example, including relaxation time in
a busy schedule and maintaining a program of
physical fitness can help reduce stress levels.
Learning to manage time more effectively can help
you avoid heavy pressures imposed by getting
behind schedule and not meeting deadlines. Take
an assessment of yourself to determine your
capabilities and limitations and then set realistic
goals. In addition, avoiding stressful situations
and encounters can help you cope with stress.
USE OF RESOURCES
To make informed decisions during flight operations,
you must be aware of the resources found
both inside and outside the cockpit. Since useful
tools and sources of information may not always
be readily apparent, learning to recognize these
resources is an essential part of ADM training.
Resources must not only be identified, but you
must develop the skills to evaluate whether you
have the time to use a particular resource and the
impact that its use will have upon the safety of
flight. For example, the assistance of air traffic
control (ATC) may be very useful if you are not
sure of your location. However, in an emergency
situation when action needs be taken quickly,
time may not be available to contact ATC immediately.
INTERNAL RESOURCES
Internal resources are found in the cockpit during
flight. Since some of the most valuable internal
resources are ingenuity, knowledge, and skill,
you can expand cockpit resources immensely by
improving these capabilities. This can be accomplished
by frequently reviewing flight information
publications, such as the CFRs and the
Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM), as well
as by pursuing additional training.
A thorough understanding of all the equipment
and systems in the aircraft is necessary to fully
utilize all resources. For example, satellite navigation
systems are valuable resources. However,
if pilots do not fully understand how to use this
equipment, or they rely on it so much that they
become complacent, it can become a detriment
to safe flight.
Checklists are essential cockpit resources for verifying
that the aircraft instruments and systems
are checked, set, and operating properly, as well
as ensuring that the proper procedures are performed
if there is a system malfunction or in-flight
emergency. Other valuable cockpit resources
include current aeronautical charts, and publications,
such as the Airport/Facility Directory
(A/FD).
Passengers can also be a valuable resource.
Passengers can help watch for traffic and may
be able to provide information in an irregular situation,
especially if they are familiar with flying. A
strange smell or sound may alert a passenger to
Figure 1-10. Task requirements vs. pilot capabilities.
1-9
a potential problem. As pilot in command, you
should brief passengers before the flight to make
sure they are comfortable voicing any concerns.
EXTERNAL RESOURCES
Possibly the greatest external resources during
flight are air traffic controllers and flight service
specialists. ATC can help decrease pilot workload
 
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