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Instrument Procedures Handbook (IPH)仪表程序手册下

时间:2010-05-10 19:29来源:蓝天飞行翻译 作者:admin 点击:
  

Transition Height (QFE) – Transition height is the
height in the vicinity of an airport at or below which
the vertical position of an aircraft is expressed in height
above the airport reference datum.
Transition Layer – Transition layer is the airspace
between the transition altitude and the transition level.
Aircraft descending through the transition layer will set
altimeters to local station pressure, while departing aircraft climbing through the transition layer will be using
standard altimeter setting (QNE) of 29.92 inches of
Mercury, 1013.2 millibars, or 1013.2 hectopascals.
Transition Level (QNE) – The lowest flight level
available for use above the transition altitude.
Turn Anticipation – The capability of RNAV systems
to determine the point along a course, prior to a turn
WP, where a turn should be initiated to provide a
smooth path to intercept the succeeding course, and to
enunciate the information to the pilot.
Turn WP [Turning Point] –A WP which identifies a
change from one course to another.
User-defined Waypoint – User-defined waypoints typically are created by pilots for use in their own random
RNAV direct navigation. They are newly established,
unpublished airspace fixes that are designated geographic locations/positions that help provide positive
course guidance for navigation and a means of checking progress on a flight. They may or may not be actually plotted by the pilot on enroute charts, but would
normally be communicated to ATC in terms of bearing
and distance or latitude/longitude. An example of userdefined waypoints typically includes those derived
from database-driven area navigation (RNAV) systems
whereby latitude/longitude coordinate-based waypoints
are generated by various means including keyboard
input, and even electronic map mode functions used to
establish waypoints with a cursor on the display.
Another example is an offset phantom waypoint, which
is a point in space formed by a bearing and distance
from NAVAIDs such as VORs, VORTACs, and
TACANs, using a variety of navigation systems.
User Request Evaluation Tool (URET) – The URET
helps provide enhanced, automated flight data management. URET is an automated tool provided at each
radar position in selected en route facilities. It uses
flight and radar data to determine present and future
trajectories for all active and proposed aircraft flights.
A graphic plan display depicts aircraft, traffic, and notification of predicted conflicts. Graphic routes for current plans and trial plans are displayed upon controller
request. URET can generate a predicted conflict of two
aircraft, or between aircraft and airspace.
Vertical Navigation (VNAV) – Traditionally, the only
way to get glidepath information during an approach
was to use a ground-based NAVAID, but modern area
navigation systems allow flight crews to display an
internally generated descent path that allows a constant
rate descent to minimums during approaches that
would otherwise include multiple level-offs.
Vertical Navigation Planning – Included within certain STARs is information provided to help you reduce
the amount of low altitude flying time for high performance aircraft, like jets and turboprops. An expected
altitude is given for a key fix along the route. By knowing an intermediate altitude in advance when flying a
high performance aircraft, you can plan the power or
thrust settings and aircraft configurations that result in
the most efficient descent, in terms of time, fuel
requirements, and engine wear.
Visual Approach – A visual approach is an ATC
authorization for an aircraft on an IFR flight plan to
proceed visually to the airport of intended landing; it is
not an IAP. Also, there is no missed approach segment.
When it is operationally beneficial, ATC may authorize
pilots to conduct a visual approach to the airport in lieu
of the published IAP. A visual approach can be initiated
by a pilot or the controller.
Visual Climb Over the Airport (VCOA) – An option
to allow an aircraft to climb over the airport with visual
reference to obstacles to attain a suitable altitude from
which to proceed with an IFR departure.
Waypoints – Area navigation waypoints are specified
geographical locations, or fixes, used to define an area
navigation route or the flight path of an aircraft
employing area navigation. Waypoints may be any of
the following types: predefined, published, floating,
user-defined, fly-by, or fly-over.
Waypoint (WP) – A predetermined geographical position used for route/instrument approach definition,
 
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